John Galsworthy – English novelist and dramatist, co-founder and first international president PEN

The author of John Galsworthy seems to develop unusually smoothly, with a conscientious and unbridled creative impulse. Yet one of those who turned to literary career quickly and without resistance. Born as the Englishman said, studying a silver spoon in his mouth, ie economically independent, studying in Harrow and Oxford, he chose the law without practicing it and traveled all over the world. When he began to write at the age of twenty-eight, the immediate cause was a womanfriend's invitation, and Galsworthy was relaxed, apparently not with the prejudices inherent in the gentleman. written profession. His first two collections were published under John's John's pen name, and self-critical beginners will soon be revoked. At age thirty-eight, he began his real authorship with the release of The Island Pharisees (1904), and two years later, "The Property Man," the origin and monumental masterpiece of Forsyte Saga

Galsworthy was quoted as being abstinence Nobel Prize for Literature

Galsworthy was born in Surrey, Surrey, Kingston Hill, in an established middle class rich family with his father John Galsworthy, attorney and director of several lawyers, and his mother, Blanche Bartleet, a Midlands manufacturer her daughter. Galsworthy attended Harrow and New College, Oxford, attended as a lawyer and was called to the bar in 1890. He refused to start practicing the law, traveled abroad to take care of the family's business as a shipping business, while pursuing an unfortunate love affair. During his studies he became a fame for cricket and football, but not in his writings. Only when you are planning to study warm-blooded horses.

During his trip, he met Joseph Conrad, then the first member of the sailing ship at Adelaide's Port Australia, and became two close friends. In a letter, he remarked, "His first companion is a pole called Conrad and a protagonist, though strange, to look at: travel and experiential people in many parts of the world, and there is a basis for the yarns I draw freely." This meeting convinced Galsworthy to give up the law and dedicate himself entirely to writing. In 1895 Galsworthy contacted Ada Nemesis Pearson, one of his cousins' wife. with whom he had been secretly living for ten years because he did not want to burden his father who would not accept the relationship. With the death of his father in 1904, Galsworthy became financially independent and married Ada in 1905. In 1933 they stayed together until his death. Even Galsworthy's female characters were inspired. The former unhappy marriage with Galsworthy's cousin laid the foundation for The Man of Property (1906), which launched The Forsyte Saga's new series, which represented Galsworthy's reputation as a great British writer.

Four Winds is a short story by Galsworthy's first published work in 1897, which appeared several times later under John Sinjohn's pen name. This would not be until The Pharisees Island (1904), which is under his own name, will appear after his father's death. His first success, The Silver Box (1906), succeeded and followed The Man of Property (1906), the first in the Forsyte trilogy.

Although he continued writing the pieces and novels, a playwright who had previously been highly regarded. With other writers of time, like Shaw, his games dealt with the class system and social issues. Two of his best known works are Strife (1909) and The Skin Game (1920).

He is much more familiar with his novels, especially the Forsyte Saga, the three trilogy of the novel about the former family and the connected life. Like many other works, they dealt with the life of the class, especially the upper middle class. Although sympathetic to his characters, he highlights their island, snobs and achievements, and their drowning moral code. The first appearance of the Forsyte family was a story of Devon's man (1901). The saga follows the life of three generations of British middle class before 1914. Soys Forsyte, the beautiful and rebellious Irene married, Arthur Galsworthy, after the cousin of the writer. Soames raped his wife, who had Ada Galsworthy's fate under her husband Arthur's hand. In the second volume, In Changery (1920), Irene and Soames divorce. She married Jolyon Forsyte, Soames's cousin, and her son Jon. Soames and his second wife, Annette Lamotte, have a daughter, Fleur. In the third volume, To Let (1921), Fleur and Jon are in love, but Jon refuses to marry. The second part of the Forsyte chronicles, The White Monkey (1924), The Silver Spoon (1926), Swan Song (1928), October 1922, begins in 1926 and closes in 1926. "The Silent Wooing" and "Passers By", the two interviews, appeared in 1927.

In 1931 Galsworthy returned to the world of Forsyte's books with a collection of additional stories about Forsyte Change. Romain Rolland, author of Jean-Christophe (1904-1912), has written a special term for the Roman-fleuve to read this series of novels, which is a legible yet coherent narrative. Despite the fact that Galsworthy was a middle-class family in England, White Monkey's foreword said that the English character has changed very little since the Soames and the Victorian generation. "They still decided they were still thinking about English … Well, they were one of the most widespread and varied races in the world, and yet did they have a species to compare them for good emotion and" courage "- the smoky cities and their climate are a remarkable example of adaptation to the environment, a modern English character! "In English, I could choose anywhere, he thought, and yet physically there is no general type. Shocking people! "

Galsworthy is one of the writers of one of the Coaches, who addresses challenges in society in the Victorian England literature, and depicting an unlucky married woman is a recurring theme in her work. animal welfare and censorship, most of which attracted a limited degree to the era in which they were written

Galsworthy's first four books appeared at his own expense under the pseudonym John Sinjohn. After reading Maupassant and Turgenev, Galsworthy published Villa Rubein (1900) (1904) was the first book to be published in his own name, and Galsworthy originally wrote in the first man, and in the third one he wrote the first book that was written by Kipling and the writers of the Russian writers, and again The final version was not until 1908.

Galsworthy's satire against the Pharisees of the island is the most important feature to name every subsequent creation. The book deals with the fact that an English gentleman has stayed abroad for so long that he has forgotten his traditional conceptual and emotional sphere. He critically criticizes the national environment and is assisted by a Belgian vagrant who accidentally introduces himself to an English railroad and becomes a fate. At that time, Galsworthy himself was a cosmopolitan home who was prepared to fight the old capitalist aristocratic society with the same programs as George Bernard Shaw, though English, unlike the writer who had fought with intellectual weapons and imagination. The Pharisee egoism of the dominant classes of England, the subject of Galsworthy's debut, remains the program of the future, only in his own works. He never hurt to fight against those that appear to be narrow and tough in the national character, and his attacks on social evil are marked by strong impressions and deeply wounded sense of justice.

With the Forsyte type now, the upper middle class, the wealthy business people, a group that has not yet achieved true kindness, but with the sympathies and instincts of the rigid, unshakeable and imposing correctness of the ruler of the well-known idea. These people are particularly cautious about dangerous emotions, a fact that does not exclude accidental disappearances when passion betrays their lives and freedom in their world of inherent instincts. Beauty, here Irene represents, does not like to live with the Owner's man; the bitter indignation of Soames Forsyte became almost tragic. Fifteen years later, to recapture Forsythe, the effects of the World War radically changed the perspective. But now this work has been expanded; Chancery (1920) and To Let (1921) and two short stories interludes, so the Forsyte Saga was right. With the younger members of the family, Galsworthy wrote a modern comedy, a new trilogy whose structure was exactly the same as its predecessor and the three novels: The White Monkey (1924), The Silver Spoon (1926) and Swan Song 1928), which was interspersed with two short stories. These two trilogys bring unusual literary results. The novelist has his time history through three generations, and his success in mastering the extremely difficult material both in his scope and depth is extremely memorable in English literature.

This chronicle is a day-to-day reality, as the Forsytes experience, all personal luck, conflict and tragedy. But in the background is the dark material of historical events. See, for example, the chapter about Soames's second wife about the funeral of Queen Victoria in gray weather on the Hyde Park fence and a quick survey of the age of joining the throne: "Morals changed, habits changed, men twice removed monkeys, Mammon – Mammon is so respectable to be deceiving. "In Forsyte novels, we observe the transformation and disintegration of the Victorian age until the beginning of the modern era. the first trilogy is the time when the unification of nobility and plutocracy in England was altered by a "gentleman", a kind of Indian rich summer, before the storm days. The second trilogy, which is no longer a "smell," but a "comedy," describes the deep crisis in New England, whose task is to change the ruins of the past and the improvised barracks of war into its future home. The types of galleries are perfectly complete. The panorama in London is a delightful young girl, club, politician, artist, kid and even dog, Galsworthy's specially-liked offspring, robust businessmen, spoiled social ladies, a particular form that is in front of her eyes and ears.

Situations are repeated as curious documents of the vibration and wavering of families of the hereditary family of disposition families. They distinguish individual portraits and the law of social life works.

It is observed in these novels that Galsworthy's view is gradually changing. The radical critique of culture is gradually increasing with greater appreciation and a purely human liberal view. There is the treatment of Soames, first satirized, but with respect he described as being reluctant to grow, and ultimately becomes a real compassion. Galsworthy insisted on his sympathy; The character of Soames's personality is thoroughly depicted as the most memorable element of Forsyte's saga and the comedy of her descendants. One of the masterpiece of the Swan Song, in which old Soames, after having led to his ancestral village on the west coast of the Antarctica, with the help of an old census map, was a farm in Forsytes where only one stone denotes the location; will remain in the reader's mind. Something like a ghost of a road leads him to the valley of a grass and valley. Inhales fresh, rough sea air, which is a bit to the head; dressed in clothes and sitting behind him, on his back against the stone. Would your ancestors have built the house themselves if they were the first people here to live here? wonder. Their England rises up in front of him, from a "packed horse of England and very little smoke, peat and fires, and wives who have never left you because they probably will not." She sits there for a long time and falls in love with her birthplace. "And something moved in as if the salty independence of the lonely patch was still in his bones. Old Jolyon and the other members of his father and uncles – no wonder they were independent in this air and loneliness in the blood; he could not give up, let go of him, die. For a moment he seemed to understand himself. "

Galsworthy Soames becomes the most static representative of England. There was no mistake in it, they told us; they tried, but it was real. Same-minded respect is respected in Galsworthy's realism. As time passed, and tired, cynical silence became more and more apparent in modern times, the chronicler found that many of the attributes that were otherwise underestimated in other circumstances might have made the secret of British resistance. All in all, Galsworthy's later novels are permeated with patriotic self-defense, which is also included in the description of domestic and nature research. Even the last mention is that they are much more favorable and excited by poetry, with the feeling that they are defending something valuable, yet shielding some kind of loss. It may be old chambers, where people themselves pretend to stay there forever. Or maybe an English garden park where the September sun is beautifully shining on the bronze beech leaves and the centennial hedge of the tide.

Above all, The Country House (1907), Fraternity (1901), and The Dark Flower (1913) have a mature essence. In the novel of the castle, perhaps the most exquisite female portraiture of her, Lady Pendyce, the perfect, untouched lady with all the modest tragedies surrounding a truly noble nature, condemned her to withhold it if she did not destroy her tradition. In the fraternity, he was a discreet mixture of sadness and irony that represented the unfulfilled martyr of spiritual conscience, the night of the shadow of the proletarian masses of London but could not make the decisive step, the impulse of action. Here we meet the old, Mr. Stone, the utopian dreamer, with his eternal monologues in the night sky, actually one of Galsworthy's most memorable types. Dark Flower can be a psychological sonata with a masterful hand and is based on the variation of passion and resignation in man's age. Even in the form of a short story, Galsworthy was often able to change emotional responses through shadows and contrasts of light that function graphically. You can only do this in a few pages that your personal style animates, for example, when you're talking about a simple case like the "German Quality of Quality", the hopeless struggle of good craftsmanship is low

His narrative art is always a call to education and a sense of justice gently influenced the contemporary concept of life and habits of thinking. The same is true of his dramatic work, which often contributed directly to the social debate and resulted in definite reforms in at least one area, administration of state prisons in England, such as justice (1910), realistic representation of prison life, so much that this led to prison reform.

His dramas show unusual rich ideas in combination with great spirits and technical knowledge to create scenic influences. When certain tendencies are found, they are always just and humane. Galsworthy's games written in a naturalistic style tend to debate controversial ethical or social problems. For example, in the woods (1924), he notes the careless ghost of evil, which ultimately exploits the heroism of the British conquest of the world. The Show (1925) depicts the vulnerability of a person to the press in a family tragedy where brutal newspaper's curiosity works like a deaf and uncontrolled machine, removing the possibility of anyone being responsible for the resulting evil

Faithful (1922) , which deals with anti-Semitism and which is also one of the best in later productions, illustrates an honest case in which loyalty is tested and examined impartially in the various circles in which it works, that is, the family, the family of the company, the profession and the nation. The power of these and other plays is their logical structure and their concerted action; sometimes the atmosphere of poetic feeling, which is far from trivial. especially A Pigeon (1912) and A Bit of Love (1915), but they did not meet such a beautiful success on the stage. The Silver Box (1906), like many other creations, is a legal subject that is bitterly opposed to the rights of the rich and the poor, and this shows that there is a law for the rich and the poor. Subsequent productions include The Skin Game (1920), shot by Alfred Hitchcock in 1931 and Escape (1926). Century-Fox, starring Rex Harrison. In the story, a law-abiding man meets a prostitute and accidentally kills the police to defend him. She is escaping from prison and meets other people before she offers herself.

Even though Galsworthy's plays can not be appreciated with art by art, they clearly confirm how strongly they insist on their early freedom. Even in his rather cool dramatic works, we find constant oppression with all oppressive, psychic, material and sensitive people who react with each heart to the lack of consideration and never leave the need for fair play

. finds in Galsworthy a definite musical charm that captures and keeps hidden feelings. His intuition is so unmistakable that he can be satisfied with a small hint and a broken tact. Galsworthy's irony is a strange instrument that is even separated by the tone as any other writer. There are many types of irony. One of the main types is negative and can be compared to the window of the house where there is no fire where the fireplace has long been cold. But there is also an irony that is friendly to life, warmth, interest and humanity; such as Galsworthy's. He is an irony that, in the presence of a tragic evil, questions why it should be, why it is needed and that there is nothing to remedy. Sometimes Galsworthy himself participates in Iranian play of human beings, with the help of wind, clouds, smells and bird sounds to emphasize the bitterness or sweetness of the incidents. This irony is successfully helped by the psychological imagination, always ally of the best understanding and sympathy.

As we have seen, Galsworth sought adventure, altruism and social commitment. It will continue throughout your life. For example, during World War I he attempted to integrate into the army, but became briefly visible. He worked in a French hospital under normal circumstances. He worked for the French Red Cross and helped refugees in Belgium. In 1917, Galsworthy refused the knighthood in the belief that writers could not accept titles. He handed over at least half of his income for humanitarian reasons. [19] In 1924, Galsworthy founded PEN, the international organization of writers, Catherine Dawson Scott as his first president. Galsworthy and Dawson Scott, after having contacted American writers, headed for a center in New York. At the opening session of the Coffee House Club on 19 April 1922, where forty people met, to which he had sent good intentions; read Alexander Black, chair of the Executive Committee. Galsworthy sent the warmest greetings to the new American center and asked the central idea and hoped which P.E.N. founded

What writers are some trustees of human nature; if

is narrow and prejudicial, then we harm the human race. And

the better we know each other … the greater the chances of human happiness in a world that is not happy yet.

One of Galsworthy's ideas at the beginning is that the International Congress, to which every center sent their delegation, first appeared in 1923 in London with an impressive number of centers and Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden and United States. Next year, the American Center held an international congress in May 1924 for a three-day ceremony and talks, and the culmination was a gala feast in which John Galsworthy read a letter from Mrs. Dawson Scott who emphasized the cause behind the PEN hospitality:

I am graciously doubting that our meetings

are not just festivities, but are friendly gestures that have a deep and broad meaning … Friends,

PEN The club was a great dream … I think I'm talking about your heart and even my own when I say, "With this dream, we are going forward as long as a big reality is [19659002]. Good luck to all of us and you can serve this dream . In January 1933, one year after the Congress in Budapest, John Galsworthy died of a brain tumor in his London house at Grove Lodge in Hampstead, leaving his Nobel Prize at a PEN foundation, the last gift and contribution to an organization he loved and nurtured, as she grows and forms. According to his will, he was cremated in Woking, and ash from South Downs was scattered on an airplane, but there is also a monument to the Highgate New Cemetery.

His popularity faded quickly, but A Forsyte Saga's highly successful adaptation in 1967 renewed his interest in the writer. Many John Galsworthy's letters and records are held at Special Collections at Birmingham University. 20 novels, 27 pieces, 3 collections, 173 shorts, 5 essay collections, 700 letters, and many sketches and various works. Galsworthy's socially committed work D.H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf attacked "Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown" that Edwardian writers "have developed a new script that meets their purpose … But these tools are not our tools and this business not our business. "The younger generation of writers accused Galsworth of being thoroughly embedded in the values ​​that had to be criticized. On the other hand, he saw his influence in Thomas Mann's work, and he was widely read in France and Russia. Forsyte Saga had a huge popular success in 1967 as a BBC television series.

References:

Nobel Laws, Literature 1901-1967, Horst Frenz Editor, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969

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